While free trade is generally beneficial, removing a trade barrier to a given asset harms shareholders and workers in the domestic industry that produces that good. Some groups that are aggrieved by foreign competition have sufficient political power to protect themselves from imports. As a result, despite their considerable economic costs, trade barriers continue to exist. For example, according to the U.S. International Trade Commission, the U.S. benefit from lifting trade restrictions on textiles and clothing would have been nearly $12 billion in 2002. This is a net economic benefit after deducting losses suffered by businesses and workers in the domestic industry. Nevertheless, local textile producers were able to convince Congress to maintain strict import restrictions. Trade pacts are often politically controversial because they can change economic practices and deepen interdependence with trading partners. Improving efficiency through “free trade” is a common goal. Most governments support other trade agreements. Unlike studies that focus on information issues in a bilateral trade relationship between symmetrical countries, recent studies have made an important contribution to the literature by analyzing application issues in multilateral trade relations between potentially asymmetrical countries.
To analytical simplicity, these studies do not explicitly halve information issues and, on the contrary, turn the perfect balance into a repeated game such as the balance concept.ac In order to implement the low tariff policy between the 1930s and the early 1970s, Congress gave the U.S. president the power to unilaterally negotiate international trade agreements and reduce tariffs through executive agreements. , both within the limits set by Congress. This streamlined trade negotiations, agreements and implementation, allowing the United States to move faster as part of congressional guidelines. The world`s major countries introduced the GATT in response to the waves of protectionism that paralyzed and contributed to world trade during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Successive GATT “cycles” have significantly reduced customs barriers on industrial products in industrialized countries. Since the beginning of the GATT in 1947, the average tariffs set by industrialized countries have increased from about 40% to about 5% today. These tariff reductions helped to promote both the considerable expansion of world trade after the Second World War and the resulting increase in real per capita income between developed and developing countries.
The annual benefit of the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers resulting from the Uruguay Round agreement (negotiated between 1986 and 1993 under the aegis of GATT) was estimated at about $96 billion, or 0.4% of global GDP.